Fourth Phase: Transforming

 

Of myself I possess nothing

Of myself I am nothing

Only gift am I

Gift for the giver

Gift for the Giver

Only gift am I

Praise, Praise, Praise

The Giver

Only gift am I

Oh, who can Return the

Gift to the Giver?

Only the Giver.

Only gift am I.

Oh Praise, Spirit, who Is

And who gives.

Who Is and who Receives

Oh, Praise your Being

You fill me!

You are all that I am

More, you are All.

Oh, why do I pretend

To be, why want to

Be myself which is nothing

Oh, Mercy who Is and

Who saves us from our

Nothingness, from Nothingness

Oh, praise, oh, praise, oh All

Oh, Giver of the Gift, I love you

For you are.

 

(5/4/80 - John)

 

We arrive to the last Phase of the Exercises where the contemplations bring the companions to experience the other side of the paschal mystery which is the resurrection of Jesus and his appearances. If the paschal mystery is at the core of the Christian faith the resurrection is the very heart of it, the event of the resurrection is the center and cornerstone of Christian life; “if Christ has not been raised, your faith is vain” (1 Cor 15:17) wrote St. Paul to the Corinthians. The resurrection of Christ is the foundation of Christian hope, affirming that God can bring forth positive meaning, love and life even of the worst evil and ultimate absurdity that can happen. The Fourth Phase is intended to be an experience of deepening faith, hope and love by helping the companions to participate by anticipation in the joy of resurrection and it leads to ulterior confirmation and sealing off the decision achieved during the Second Phase. The companions experience a deeper union with the contemporary, risen Christ and the decision they just confirmed becomes transformed into lived reality.

There is a very delicate, dynamic and important transition between the Third and Fourth Phases, and - as in the introduction to the passion phase we have already mentioned -, this transition is similar to what the companions experienced between the First and Second Phases [1]. Using again the image of the upward going spiral these phases cover the same ground as the first two, only on a higher level and then the whole Exercises process gives place to the continued cycles of “turning-from” and “turning-toward” on the spiraling way of growth and healing as presented in Christotherapy [2]. The criterion to decide if the companions are ready to enter this new Phase is the growing desire in their heart for sharing in the joy of the resurrection after have experienced the passion and death of Jesus in the contemplations of the Third Phase.

This desire cannot be introduced or forced and it might happen that the inner process of the passion phase might be not arrived to its conclusion yet. The companions need also to wait for each other, since it is important that they experience this Phase together as one unique and single “body”. They can find the common moment of transition in a somewhat similar way to what they used in the decision process of the Second Phase [3]. If the companions entered in existential suffering during the Third Phase they need to wait until it subsides and gives place to the new experience. It might happen that the contemplations of the passion did not become as intense as to cause inner suffering and in this case the companions should decide if to prolong the passion phase or to move over to the contemplation on the appearances of the risen Jesus. It is important to remember that these experiences, the sorrow as well as the joy are gifts of the Holy Spirit to pray for during the Exercises and not to be induced by will or performing certain techniques. The question of moving ahead in the process needs to be considered in simplicity in a peaceful spirit; sometimes a relatively deeper commitment and openness toward God is what the companions receive by completing these exercises without much sensible feelings and it should not cause worry. If the companions are doing the Exercises in the everyday life form when there is no set date for ending it, it can be simply extended to give time for the inner process to take place. In case of the secluded form time-limit can lead to a decision to begin the contemplation on the resurrection for example after the retreat in the daily life form of the Exercises [4]. Maybe the companions already began to become familiar with We think that in all cases the companions should take the “Contemplation to Attain the Love of God” [230-237] at some point because of its importance for the entire process as we will explain it in the presentation of this exercise. In fact St. Ignatius himself began this Contemplation during the passion phase.

The goal of the Fourth Phase is that through the contemplation of the appearances of the risen Jesus the companions definitely confirm their decision and through the commitment to live it out in all circumstances to be transformed into participants of the saving work of Christ. As the companions contemplate these encounters, they enter a situation similar to that of the first disciples, and also they can become absorbed by Christ in this process, or at least desire to belong totally to him. St. Paul speaks of his own experience of being absorbed by Christ and confesses beautifully: “It is not that I have already taken hold of it or have already attained perfect maturity, but I continue my pursuit in hope that I may possess it, since I have indeed been taken possession by Christ. Brothers, I for my part do not consider myself to have taken possession. Just one thing: forgetting what lies behind but straining forward what lies ahead I continue my pursuit toward the goal, the prize of God’s upward calling, in Christ Jesus” (Phil 3:12-14). We used already the analogy of marriage for this fidelity to the commitment to the decision taken before, as faithfulness “in good and bad”. In fact, the Fourth Phase ushers the “Contemplation to Attain the Love of God” which the transition into the “aftermath”, into the everyday life, now lived with the sense of mission and with the sensitivity to discover God in all things in trivial or in great events, in sorrow and in joy. The everyday existence of the companions becomes mystical life, real experience of God through love and service.

The experience of the paschal mystery in the Third and Fourth Phases offers to the companions to re-live the transforming passage of the baptism [5] presented in this way by St. Paul in the Letter to the Romans: “…are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might live in newness of life. For if we have grown into union with him through a death like his, we shall be united with him in the resurrection” (Rom 6:3-5). Of course as we cannot stress it enough to live and die as Jesus does not mean the external imitation of him but to live as authentically as he did. There are as many ways to be Christians as baptized individuals; moreover, the contemporary Christ, the risen Lord continues his saving work through any authentically lived human life.

During the contemplations of the resurrection appearances St. Ignatius makes the exercitants pray for the grace “to be glad and rejoice intensely because of the great joy and the glory of Christ our Lord” [221]. The grace of this Phase is a sign of highly selfless attitude since it is not so easy to be in joy because of the good that happened of someone else; it is still harder than the compassion toward a suffering person. To understand well what this request means the companions should avoid to think that it is expected from them to produce joy. Such attitude of trying the joy to happen would only block the grace of receiving it. The companions are called here simply to pray for this grace, not to induce it. Joy is an intentional emotion [6], which means that it is directed toward an object and in itself cannot be willed as a goal. If the object is there, if there is a reason to be in joy, the emotion will arise; while making it into an object by trying to achieve it would render joy impossible. In all scenes of the appearances after the resurrection Jesus plays the role of Consoler and this consolation is the fruit of these contemplations with more or less felt joy depending on several factors as the general sensibility of the companions, the actual situation they are when doing these exercises and their openness toward the grace.

This joy is an authentic sign of “spirit-feasting”, rejoicing with all our heart filled by the Holy Spirit because of the resurrection of Jesus. When Christotherapy speaks of “spirit-feasting” as a method [7], it does not implicate that it is induced by will; instead it is a gift of God flowing from the contemplation of goodness, beauty and wisdom in something or in someone, and the emotional rejoicing involved is caused by the reason of the good experienced or the person encountered. We can say then in Logotherapeutic terms that “spirit-feasting” is a special way of finding meaning by actualizing experiential values. We have already mentioned that Logotherapy distinguishes three levels of discovering meaning in life [8], by realizing creative, experiential and attitudinal values. While the passion phase brought our attention to the attitudinal values, to the meaning of suffering, the contemplations of the resurrection focus on the discovery of meaning by encountering the risen Jesus and sharing in his joy [9]. The third form of finding meaning in life through creative activity is permeating the entire Spiritual Exercises since St. Ignatius sees the love of God as consisting in deeds and realized in generous service of him and our fellow humans [10].

Both the sorrow asked for in the Third Phase and the rejoicing in the Fourth Phase are graces to receive and not only emotions on the psychological level. Their effect might be felt sadness or joy, but they are fruits of human compassion and generosity and belong to the spiritual core of the person, where God is present in a special way. Following the terminology introduced by of Donald F. Tweedie [11] we call the core of the human person “pneumatic dimension” (from the Greek word ‘pneuma’ meaning ‘spirit’); it complements the somatic, psychic and noetic realms of the “dimensional ontology” introduced in the existential analysis of Viktor Frankl [12]. Writing about the relationship between the different spheres of the human existence Frankl himself mentions also a fourth, all-encompassing dimension to which religion belongs: “From the very analogy of dimensions, however, it should become clear that these realms are by no means mutually exclusive. A higher dimension, by definition, is a more inclusive one. The lower dimension is included in the higher one; it is subsumed in it and encompassed by it. Thus biology is overarched by psychology, psychology by noology, and noology by theology” [13]. While Logotherapy as a secular therapy is careful to be open for all patients independently of their beliefs and restricts itself to the specifically human or noetic, noological (from the Greek word ‘noos’ meaning ‘mind’) dimension, in our exercises we work first of all with our the pneumatic dimension and we need to include it in our view of the human person. The “human trinity”[14] (somatic, psychic, noetic dimensions) created on the image of the divine Trinity we find “carried” by and existing in a fourth dimension, which is the ground of its existence and a special dimension of communication through grace with God; in this way we might speak of a “quaternity”. During the Middle Ages there were representations of the divine “Quaternity”, bringing in God a human, feminine figure, often the Blessed Virgin Mary. Might we say that God has something human in him, not only because of the Incarnation but also as an immanent feature?

The notion of the fourth dimension will help us to see clear that although we speak abundantly of feelings and rely on them in the “discernment of the spirits” for example, and the effects of Exercises encompass our whole being, its specific area where the changes first of all take place is in the pneumatic dimension where we communicate with the triune God. Frankl used the analogy of the point of perspective that lies outside of the picture but without it the image has no correct proportions and sense of depth to illustrate that God although stands outside of the human life but gives meaning to it [15]. With the inclusion of the pneumatic dimension so to speak we draw this “point of perspective” in our view of the human being. The inclusion of the fourth dimension from Catholic (and from most Protestant) point of view has its foundation in the presence of the Holy Spirit in every human being created in the image of God and particularly in the teaching about the indwelling of the Trinity as a gift of God in the soul. Thus the pneumatic dimension is not simply a facet of the human existence but its very core, which permeates and organizes all other dimensions and is the source of the uniqueness of the human person and of its communication with God. “…God himself as the abiding and holy mystery, as the incomprehensible ground of man’s transcendent existence is not only the God of infinite distance, but also wants to be the God of absolute closeness in a true self-communication, and he is present in the spiritual depths of our existence as well as in the concreteness of our corporeal history” [16]

Similarly to what we just said about the relationship between Logotherapy and the Exercises, when we introduce in the Exercises methods from Christotherapy as the “mind-fasting” and “spirit-feasting”, these are processes that originate in the pneumatic dimension; these “techniques” consist first of all of prayer and are assisted by the indwelling Holy Spirit who is invoked constantly while we are working on finding our way. While classical Logotherapy should avoid the confusion with religious connotation, Christotherapy as a holistic Catholic approach to healing and growth, deals with all the four dimensions of the human being and the pneumatic dimension constitutes its specific area. Although the spiritual core of the human person, the pneumatic and the noetic dimension cannot become sick, the thirst of our hearts for God and its search for meaning can be frustrated and originate illness on the other levels. In Logotherapy the sense of meaninglessness is called “noogenic” neurosis [17], and in similar way we might speak as well of “pneumatogenic” neurosis  caused by the frustration on the religious level of existence. On the other hand when a positive change occurs on the pneumatic level, it will influence the somatic, psychic and noetic dimensions as well. For example, the effects of forgiveness might influence even the somatic level, resulting in physical healing [18].

The meaning of the joy and spirit-feasting as goal of the Fourth Phase presented just now is in harmony with the spirituality St. Ignatius intended when told repeatedly that love consists first of all in deeds, in generous and humble service, not in words and nice affections. We need to remember that St. Ignatius was the one who broke out in tears only by mentioning the Holy Trinity and who kissed with fervor the places in the Holy Land as the supposed “footprints” Jesus left behind at the Ascension! The goal of the Exercises is to lead the companions to a truly “holistic” spirituality and way of life, to become “contemplatives in action”, for whom mystical experience is the love lived concretely in the everyday life. We return to this concept of mystics in the presentation of the “Contemplation to Attain the Love of God” [230-237].

The contemplations in this phase are on the gospel accounts of the appearances of the risen Christ, which have a peculiar character and distinguished structure. These encounters constitute the basis of the Easter faith; no one actually witnessed the resurrection itself and we have no other source of knowledge about what happened on that morning than the testimony of the women and the disciples meeting the risen Jesus. St. Ignatius points out the general character of these accounts when calls the exercitants to see “the divinity, which seemed to hide itself during the passion, now appearing and manifesting itself” [223] and to consider “the office of consoler that Christ our Lord exercises” in all encounters with him. As for the structure, at the beginning of each story the disciples are busy with whatever they can do after the death of Jesus, then he suddenly appears and they don’t recognize him until a particular word or gesture; at the end he usually sends them out for a mission and disappears [19]. This structure, which probably is developed during the years of oral transmission rendering easier to memorize the story, relieves essential points in the meaning of the appearance stories and renders them very suitable for the simple and peaceful contemplations of the Fourth Phase.

The characteristics of the appearances of Jesus shed light on the meaning of these encounters, and analogously might apply to our experiences of faith, too. Only by analogy however since the experience of the disciples as basis and beginning for the faith of all following generations stands out as unique and substantially different from our personal encounters with Christ through his Spirit. On the other side, as for the first disciples the decisive question also for us is if we are ready to give ourselves to be absorbed by the risen Christ [20].

In these encounters first of all we see the common characteristic of the divine initiative as Christ is who suddenly appears to the disciples or the women engaged in their activities. The term used for the appearances is the Greek ‘opthe’ which is a passive verb referring or to the action of God revealing Christ or to the action of Christ showing himself [21]. This concept places the encounters with the risen Christ in the line of the theophanies and as such they are moments of revelation of God. God makes himself known to us and we are called to respond to his revelation. Our faith is always an answer and a response to God, on whose part the initiative is. Christotherapy puts the conversion and healing process in the perspective of this divine initiative, referring not only on the processes of religious conversion but also on the dynamics of healing from neurosis and addiction [22]. What we see here on the level of faith translates to the other levels of human existence. As Logotherapy pointed out we are not creating meaning in our life, rather we discover meanings by responding to the questions life present to us. We are creatures called in existence and to respond with it and live responsibly in consequence. We are loved first and received the commandment to love. Collaborating with God who communicates himself one responds with the attitudes of humble listening, receptivity, “letting-be” and can arrive to a stage of active passivity and transparence to the action of God or ‘wu wei’ as Christotherapy. This last grace is what the “Contemplation to Attain the Love of God” [230-237] aims to receive and lived as a form of mystics, with other words the grace of being contemplatives in action or “finding God in all things”.

We see in these stories that without the divine initiative there is no Easter faith, neither seeing the empty tomb was not the experience that raised the belief in the resurrection. The disciples inspect the empty tomb, no one except the “beloved disciple” who “saw and believed” (Jn 20:8) think of the resurrection, but Peter makes sure no robbery happened and then they “returned home” (Jn 20:10) as if nothing happened [23]. They need to meet actually the glorified Jesus in order to believe and when they saw him still were not forced to believe by some miracle as dispensed from believing by seeing. Also the first witnesses had an experience of faith theirs was a “believing seeing”.

Maybe the most surprising feature of the appearance stories that the disciples often do not recognize Jesus until he does not make himself known by a sign or gesture. The pedagogical aim of the encounters might be expressed so that Jesus teaches the disciples to get used to this new mysterious and lasting presence, when he seems to be not there any more, but in fact still is always with them in all things. The companions are in a similar situation since during the contemplations of this phase also they experience the coming and going of Jesus and learn to recognize the world as belonging to Christ, as the “enlargement and extension of his Body” [24].

The appearance of Jesus is a moment of theophany which manifests him as the risen Lord, yet this is not immediate experience of God who still reveals himself as hidden and mysterious One. What the witnesses see in a flashing way is the glory of God in the glorification of the crucified Jesus [25]. The disciples first react by disbelief, until they recognize Jesus in a sign, which he chose for the individual or for the situation to make himself known. After this moment of recognition and faith Christ gives a task to perform, imparts a mission or confirms the authority of the disciples and immediately departs. These moments are most evident in the passage of the closing appearance and sending of the disciples in Mt 28:16-20, which shows the “unapproachable grandeur and the non-identifiable nature of Christ’s manifestation” [26].

In John’s gospel when Jesus appears to the disciples on the evening of the day of the resurrection and sends them in the world, he gives the Holy Spirit by breathing on them (Jn 20:21-23) as in the Genesis God breathed the spirit of life in the first man. Pentecost for John is bound up with Easter; the resurrection is completed by the sending of the Spirit, the promised Easter gift (Jn 14:16-17.25) through which the disciples become part of the new creation, children of God born from the Spirit (Jn 1:12-13) and brothers of Jesus (Jn 20:17). We mentioned already that the experience of the paschal mystery parallels with the transforming passage of the baptism; contemplating the Spirit as Easter gift we find a further allusion to the Christian baptism which is also “baptism in the Spirit” (for example Mk 1:8, Jn 1:33 and Jn 3:5) and this gift of the Spirit is associated with the forgiveness of sins in the early Christian tradition followed also by John (see it in Jn 20:22-23) [27].

Through the contemplations the companions will be able to experience the particular character of these encounters with the risen Jesus. After they prayed with the gospel passages, in the light of these accounts they might wish to re-live also one of their faith experiences and encounters with God in this form. St. Ignatius gave great freedom how to organize the exercises of this Phase [226-228], for example leaving to the exercitants - who are at this point already experienced in this form of prayer - the structure of the contemplations. He advises to continue the same rhythm as in the passion phase and even to follow a more relaxed program saying that for the secluded retreat four exercises a day - that is one contemplation, two repetitions and one “application of the senses” - “is more in keeping with” the Fourth Period [227]. Alongside with the aforementioned “spirit-feasting” the companions might help the goal of the contemplations by changing whatever is possible in their ambient, using nature to support the joyful tone of this Period, “to make use of the light and the pleasures of the seasons, for example, in summer of the refreshing coolness, in the winter of the sun and fire” [229].

St. Ignatius did not give special guidelines for the discernment of the spirits for the Fourth Phase, but from the similarity of the situation of this with the Second Phase where the temptations came under the disguise of good and in exaggeration of expectations we can say that the guidelines given for that Phase are applicable and useful also during the contemplation of the resurrection. Also the “Guidelines for the Right Attitude toward the Church or Sense of Church” [352-370] is generally considered belonging to the Fourth Phase, which we recommend to the companions to read during this time. This stress on the Church is understandable if we take into consideration that the divinity manifesting itself in the resurrection has its “true and most sacred effects” [223] first of all in the forming of the community of the disciples, preparing the Church to fulfill her mission under the guidance of the Holy Spirit who takes over the role of Jesus as Consoler and Advocate until he returns [28]. Jesus is the first Advocate or Paraclete (Greek, meaning defense attorney, or spokesman, consoler, comforter, intercessor or mediator as in 1Jn 2:1) and the Spirit is the second who guarantees the presence of Christ in the world and the faithful understanding of his teachings. This connection is particularly clear in the gospel of John (for example in 14:15-31) where everything that is said about of the Paraclete is said also of Jesus and where Jesus and the Holy Spirit is presented in a successor relationship, typified for example by Elijah-Elisha (2Kings 2:9-15): when the prophet dies his “prophetic spirit” passes over to the successor. Thus in the history of salvation two phases can be distinguished, first the life of the earthly Jesus and then the time of the Church animated by the Spirit of Christ [29].

The contemplations of the risen Christ place the companions in a situation similar to the first disciples and help them to grow in realistic understanding of the Church and in the love of the Spirit of Christ. Maybe the companions already began to become familiar with the “Contemplation to Attain the Love of God” [230-237] during the Third Phase as proposed there in the Notes [204- 207], but if not yet, they need to do so during the resurrection phase. The “Guidelines for the Right Attitude toward the Church or Sense of Church” [352-370] and the “Contemplation to Attain the Love of God” [230-237] are intended to support the process introduced by the contemplations and should be prayed over time to time in the Fourth Phase. Although the birth of the Church is usually connected with the event of Pentecost, the actual process of the building this community of the faithful in the Spirit took place during a period of time that began during the apparitions contemplated in the Fourth Phase. Let us end our introduction with the words of Karl Rahner about this birth process of the Church:

 

“It is said that the Church was founded at Pentecost. It can also be said that Jesus established the Church by giving authority to Peter and the apostles. We hear an echo in Pius XII’s encyclical Mystici Corporis of the view that the Church came into existence on the cross as the second Eve and mother of all the living, sprung from the pierced side of the second Adam who died there. These statements need not be in contradiction, for each graphically expresses a facet of a complex occurrence which cannot be assigned a quite determinate moment and date because it concerns a society, not a physical event. To the nature of the Church there belongs her structure as a society hierarchically organized with a variety of offices and authorities, and also the Spirit animating her like a soul, as well as the manifestation of this gift of the Spirit, for she has to bear witness through history precisely as such a Spirit-endowed society. Consequently, mention is made of the cross, as the event in which in the Blood of the Redemption the Holy Spirit is given to mankind, and of Pentecost, when it is made known tangibly and by testimony that this Spirit has truly come” [30].

 

 



[1] Cf. Tyrrell, “Christotherapy II,” pp. 212-213.

[2] Cf. Tyrrell, “Christotherapy II,” pp. 3-6. See [4] in our presentation of the Phases where we describe the stages in the process of spiritual growth and healing and also the introduction to the Third Phase. Cf. Tyrrell, “Christotherapy II,” pp. 3-6.

[3] See the method of decision if the companions are in different situations as described in “Arriving to a Decision” [169-189].

[4] In order to respect the inner process of the Exercises, Alex Lefrank for example would end the Exercises without the resurrection contemplations: “If one has little time at one’s disposal I consider it in general better to devote some days completely to prayerful penetration into the Passion than to do two days of the Passion and one of the Risen Life”, in Lefrank – Giuliani, “Freedom for Service”, p. 132.

[5] Cf. Prather, “Generous Openness”, p. 88.

[6] See for example in Frankl, “The Doctor and the Soul,” p. 22., and also “The Unconscious God”, p. 14.

[7] Cf. Tyrrell, “Christotherapy I,” p. 73-106; “Christotherapy II,” pp.126-128.

[8] Cf. Frankl, “Man’s Search for Meaning,” p. 176.

[9] A scriptural example of realization of experiential values in the story of Martha and Mary (Lk 10:38-42) can be found in Leslie, “Jesus as Counselor,” pp.84-91.

[10] See our presentation of the “Three Degrees of the Love of God” [165-168] and particularly the “Contemplation to Attain the Love of God” [230-237].

[11] Donald F. Tweedie, The Christian and the Couch. An Introduction to Christian Logotherapy, (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1963) pp. 48-58.

[12] Cf. Frankl, “The Doctor and the Soul,” pp. ix-xi. Frankl consequently uses the terms “spiritual” without religious reference, but in the sense of the specifically human or noetic phenomena as responsibility, will to meaning and so on. His effort of keeping religion and psychiatry apart did not mean the denial the validity of the religious sphere which would mean a form of reductionism against which he fought insistently but a will for clarity and to reach out in openness to those who does not have religious faith and in consequence in a greater need for help in recognizing that life is meaningful in all circumstances.

[13] Frankl, “The Unconscious God,” p. 13.

[14] Once I saw an interesting illustration of the Star of David, composed of two equilateral triangles; the pointing up represents the “human trinity” and the other the divine “Trinity”. In this imagery the fourth “dimension” is this superposed divine triangle. The illustration was intended as a symbol of Jesus, Son of David, perfect man and perfect God. We could play with the thought that in the case of all other humans the two triangles are more or less perfectly superposed…

[15] Cf. Viktor Frankl, Homo Patiens, (Wien: Franz Dietcke, 1950) p. 86. Quoted in Robert C. Leslie, Jesus as Counselor, (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1968)

[16] Karl Rahner, Foundations of the Christian Faith, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1978). P.137.

[17] See for example Frankl, “The Unheard Cry for Meaning,” pp. 22-23.

[18] Let us refer as an example to story of the paralyzed young man in Mark’s gospel (2:2-12). Jesus says to the paralytic “Child, your sins are forgiven” and this healing on pneumatic level - since it was a reconciliation with God - the young man becomes able to get up, take his mat and go home. Cf. Leslie, “Jesus as Counselor,” pp. 55-63.

[19] We might put this structure in parallel with the stories of the calling of the disciples; also there the future disciples are busy with their usual life; Jesus takes the initiative to approach them; there is the calling word to which they answer with an immediate following leaving everything behind.

[20] Cf. Kasper, “Jesus the Christ,” p. 140.

[21] Cf. Ibid., p. 137.

[22] See the presentation of the Easter appearances in Tyrrell, “Christotherapy II,” pp. 213-224.

[23] See the analysis of the Easter experiences of the gospel of John in Edward Schillebeeckx, Christ. The Experience of Jesus as Lord, (New York: Crossroad, 1983) p. 417ff.

[24] Lefrank – Giuliani, “Freedom for Service”, p. 135.

[25] Kasper, “Jesus the Christ,” pp. 137-138.

[26] Ibid., p. 139.

[27] Cf. Schillebeeckx, “Christ. The Experience of Jesus as Lord,” p. 420-422.

[28] See the remarks of John C. Futrell on the ecclesial and pneumatic character of the Fourth Phase in Cowan-Futrell, “The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola,” pp. 127-128.

[29] Cf. Schillebeeckx, “Christ. The Experience of Jesus as Lord,” p. 423.

[30] Karl Rahner, “The Dynamic Element in The Church,” p. 42.